Lok Sabha Elections 2024: Here’s Detailed List Of All 40 Parliamentary Constituencies In Bihar

Lok Sabha Elections 2024: Here’s Detailed List Of All 40 Parliamentary Constituencies In Bihar

It remains to be seen if the BJP and JD(U) decide to contest a lesser number of seats to accommodate its allies

Abhishek SinghUpdated: Monday, February 12, 2024, 09:41 PM IST
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The present state of Bihar, with over 104 million people and 38 districts came into existence in 2000 after splitting with Jharkhand. There are 40 Lok Sabha and 243 Assembly constituencies in the state. After delimitation, six Lok Sabha seats namely Gaya, Gopalganj, Hajipur, Sasaram, Samastiput and Jamui were reserved for Scheduled Castes in the state.

In 2019 Lok Sabha elections, the Bharatiya Janata Party, Janata Dal United and the undivided Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) contested together, winning 39 of the 40 seats. The BJP won 17, JD(U) 16 and LJP six seats. The Congress won only one seat, with the RJD drawing a blank. In 2014, the JD(U) contested alone and won only two seats, while the BJP, in an alliance with the Rashtriya Lok Samta Party (RLSP) and the Lok Janshakti Party (LJP), won 31 out of 40 seats in the state.

As per a recent opinion poll, the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is likely to see a drop in seats, winning 32 of the 40 seats. The INDIA bloc, which comprises the Congress, Lalu Prasad Yadav's RJD and Left, is likely to increase its tally and win eight seats. Data further shows that as far as the vote share is concerned, the BJP-led NDA is likely to see a marginal drop to 52 percent from the 53 percent it gained in the 2019 Lok Sabha polls. The INDIA bloc is likely to benefit, seeing a rise in vote share by 7 percentage points from the 31 percent it secured in 2019.

The battle this time will be interesting as, after Nitish Kumar going back again with BJP, the NDA will have to accommodate several smaller parties during seat-sharing talks. Also, while Nitish Kumar's JD(U) was part of the NDA in 2019, the LJP is no longer a single party. Moreover, the Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular) of Jitan Ram Manjhi and Rashtriya Lok Janta Dal of Upendra Kushwaha are also now with the ND. It remains to be seen if the BJP and JD(U) decide to contest a lesser number of seats to accommodate its allies.

With this let's take a look at the detailed list of all 40 parliamentary constituencies in Bihar:

1. Begusarai Lok Sabha Constituency: 

Begusarai Lok Sabha Constituency comprises a total of 17,78,759 electors, with 8,28,934 being female and 9,49,825 male. It is not reserved for any particular category. The constituency includes the assembly constituencies of Cheria Bariarpur, Bachhwara, Teghra, Matihani, Sahebpur Kamal, Begusarai, and Bakhri (SC).

In previous Lok Sabha elections, the seat was held by Congress' Rajo Singh from 1998 to 2004. JD(U)'s Rajiv Ranjan Singh won in 2004, followed by JD(U)'s Monzair Hassan in 2009. BJP's Bhola Singh secured victory in 2014, and in 2019, BJP's Giriraj Singh emerged as the winner.

Known as the "Leningrad of Bihar" due to its significant Communist presence, Begusarai covers the entire Begusarai district. It is predominantly Hindu, with a population of 29,70,541 individuals. The district has a substantial Scheduled Caste (SC) population of 4,32,270 and regularly receives financial assistance from the Centre under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. In 2019 JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar contested from here on a CPI ticket.

2. Gopalganj Lok Sabha Constituency:

Gopalganj Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 17, comprises a total of 16,52,767 electors, with 7,91,748 being female and 8,61,019 male. It is reserved for Scheduled Castes. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency are Baikunthpur, Barauli, Gopalganj, Kuchaikote, Bhore (SC), and Hathua.

In the past four Lok Sabha elections, the seat has alternated between the RJD, JD(U), and BJP. Presently, JD(U)'s Dr. Alok Kumar Suman holds the seat.

Encompassing the entire Gopalganj district, this constituency holds the distinction of being the largest electorate-wise in the state based on 2014 estimates. It is noteworthy as the home district of RJD chief Lalu Prasad Yadav, with his ancestral village, Phulwaria, located here. The constituency has a Scheduled Caste population of 3,20,064, which is lower than its Muslim population of over 4.3 lakh people. It also benefits from aid under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

3. Araria Lok Sabha Constituency

Araria Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 9, comprises a total of 15,87,348 electors based on 2014 estimates, with 7,44,464 being female and 8,42,884 male. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies under this Lok Sabha constituency are Narpatganj, Raniganj, Forbesganj, Araria, Jokhihat, and Sikti.

In the past four Lok Sabha elections, the seat has seen varying victories. RJD’s Sukhdeo Paswan secured the seat in 1999, then contested as a BJP candidate in 2004 and successfully retained it. In 2009, BJP’s Pradeep Kumar Singh won, but the seat was lost to RJD’s Tasleem Uddin in 2014. In 2019, BJP’s Pradeep Kumar Singh once again emerged victorious.

Covering the entirety of the Araria district, this constituency has a population of 28,11,569 according to the 2011 Census. It is home to around 12.07 lakh Muslims and has a Scheduled Caste population of 3,82,684. The constituency receives financial support under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

4. Arrah Lok Sabha Constituency

Arrah Lok Sabha Constituency, with the designation of constituency number 32, comprises a total of 18,32,332 electors, among whom 8,22,292 are female and 10,10,040 are male. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Sandesh, Barhara, Arrah, Agiaon (SC), Tarari, Jagdishpur, and Shahpur.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, the seat witnessed a shift in victories. The RJD retained the seat in the 1999 and 2004 polls. However, in 2009, JD(U)’s Meena Singh emerged victorious, only to be succeeded by BJP’s Raj Kumar Singh in 2014. In 2019, BJP’s R.K. Singh secured victory for the constituency.

Encompassing most parts of the Bhojpur district, this constituency faces challenges related to Left Wing Extremism (LWE) and currently benefits from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. According to the Census of 2011, the district has a population of 27,28,407 people.

5. Hajipur Lok Sabha Constituency

Hajipur Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 21, comprises a total of 16,49,547 electors, with 7,54,500 being female and 8,95,047 male. It is reserved for Scheduled Castes. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Hajipur, Lalganj, Mahua, Rajapakar (SC), Raghopur, and Mahnar.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, the seat was predominantly held by Lok Janshakti Party chief and eight-time MP Ram Vilas Paswan from 1998 to 2014, except for the 2009 term where he lost to JD(U)’s Ram Sundar Das. Currently, Rashtriya Lok Janshakti Party's Pashupati Kumar Paras represents this seat.

Encompassing most parts of the Vaishali district, this constituency has a population of 34,95,021. It is situated within the Red Corridor and receives financial assistance from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. The demographics of Hajipur in north Bihar are largely dominated by Scheduled Castes and Bhumihars.

6. Vaishali Lok Sabha Constituency

Vaishali Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 16, encompasses a total of 15,87,202 electors, consisting of 7,32,421 females and 8,54,781 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Minapur, Kanti, Baruraj, Paroo, Sahebganj, and Vaishali.

Historically, this constituency has been a stronghold of the RJD. Raghubansh Prasad Singh served as the MP until 2014 when he was defeated by LJP’s Rama Kishore Singh. In the 2019 elections, Janata Dal (United)’s Veena Devi emerged victorious from this seat.

Covering parts of both Muzaffarpur and Vaishali districts, the Vaishali district itself has a population of 34,95,021 people, with a predominantly Hindu population. It falls within the Red Corridor and receives assistance under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

7. Jamui Lok Sabha Constituency

Jamui Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 40, consists of a total of 15,50,936 electors, with 7,22,530 being female and 8,28,406 male. It is reserved for Scheduled Castes. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Tarapur, Sheikhpura, Sikandra (SC), Jamui, Jhajha, and Chakai.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, JD(U) leader Bhudeo Choudhary became the MP in 2009. However, in 2014, LJP’s Chirag Kumar Paswan defeated RJD rival Sudhansu Shekhar Bhaskar by a margin of more than 85,000 votes. In the 2019 elections, Chirag Paswan from Lok Janshakti Party (Ram Vilas) secured victory once again.

Jamui, being a reserved constituency, has a significant Rajput and Khushwaha population, which holds sway in determining the electoral outcome. The constituency also comprises a substantial number of Dalit and Mahadalit voters, along with a notable presence of the Das community. It is important to note that Jamui falls within the Red Corridor in Bihar.

8. Aurangabad Lok Sabha Constituency

Aurangabad Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 37, comprises a total of 15,36,153 electors, with 7,10,579 females and 8,25,574 males. It is not reserved for any particular category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Kutumba (SC), Aurangabad, Rafiganj, Gurua, Imamganj (SC), and Tikari.

In the past four Lok Sabha elections, the seat was under the control of the Congress from 1999 to 2009. However, in 2009, Sushil Kumar Singh of the JD(U) emerged victorious, defeating RJD’s Shakil Ahmed Khan. Singh continued his winning streak by securing the seat again in 2014 and 2019, this time on a BJP ticket.

Aurangabad Lok Sabha Constituency is known for its Naxal influence and is spread across parts of Aurangabad and Gaya districts. The constituency boasts a substantial Rajput and Muslim population, collectively constituting at least 20 percent of the populace. Additionally, Aurangabad district receives financial support under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

9. Banka Lok Sabha Constituency

Banka Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 27, encompasses a total of 15,49,456 electors, including 7,24,446 females and 8,25,010 males. It is not reserved for any particular category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency consist of Sultanganj, Amarpur, Dhoraiya (SC), Banka, Katoria (ST), and Belhar.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, the seat witnessed varying outcomes. JD(U)’s Digvijaya Singh secured victory in 1999 but was defeated by RJD’s Giridhari Yadav subsequently. Singh contested as an Independent and reclaimed the seat in 2009. In the 2010 bypoll, another Independent candidate, Putul Kumari, emerged victorious but was later succeeded by RJD’s Jai Prakash Narayan Yadav in 2014. In 2019, Giridhari Yadav reclaimed the seat, this time on a JD(U) ticket.

Demographically, the constituency has never elected a member affiliated with the Sangh Parivar. It covers the entirety of the Banka district and a portion of the Bhagalpur district. At least two constituencies within Banka are affected by Maoist activities. Being a part of Seemanchal, which is predominantly Muslim, minority votes play a significant role in determining the electoral outcome in Banka.

10. Buxar Lok Sabha Constituency

Buxar Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 33, comprises a total of 16,40,567 electors, with 7,62,255 females and 8,78,312 males. It is not reserved for any particular category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Brahampur, Buxar, Dumraon, Rajpur (SC), Ramgarh, and Dinara.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, the seat was held by BJP’s Lalmuni Choubey from 1996 to 2009. However, he was defeated by RJD’s Jagdanand Singh in 2009. Singh, in turn, lost to BJP’s Ashwini Kumar Choubey in 2014 by a margin of more than 1.32 lakh votes, who subsequently retained the seat in 2019.

Traditionally, Buxar has been dominated by the Brahmin-Rajput community. It covers the entire Buxar district and parts of Kaimur and Rohtas. According to the Census of 2011, Buxar district has a population of 17,06,352 people, with over 15.91 lakh Hindus. The district benefits from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

11. Darbhanga Lok Sabha Constituency

Darbhanga Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 14, encompasses a total of 14,95,446 electors, comprising 6,97,976 females and 7,97,470 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The constituency was delimited in 2008, with the dissolution of the Manigachi Assembly segment, which merged with the Darbhanga Rural segment. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Gaura Bauram, Benipur, Alinagar, Darbhanga Rural, Darbhanga, and Bahadurpur.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, the seat saw a variation in political representation. Between 1999 and 2009, the RJD held the seat. Subsequently, BJP’s Kirti Azad served as the sitting MP from 2009 to 2014. In 2019, BJP’s Gopal Jee Thakur emerged victorious.

Demographically, Darbhanga Lok Sabha Constituency covers parts of the Darbhanga district, with a total population of 39,37,385 people. The Muslim population, standing at 8,81,476, surpasses the Scheduled Caste population in the district. The constituency benefits from aid provided under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

12. Gaya Lok Sabha Constituency

Gaya Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 38, comprises a total of 15,00,751 electors, with 7,09,883 females and 7,90,868 males. It is reserved for Scheduled Castes. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Sherghati, Barachatti (SC), Bodh Gaya (SC), Gaya Town, Belaganj, and Wazirganj.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, the seat witnessed shifts in political representation. BJP’s Ramji Manjhi emerged victorious in 1999, but in 2004, RJD’s Rajesh Kumar Manjhi assumed power. From 2009 to 2014, the seat was held by BJP’s Hari Manjhi. However, in 2019, JD(U)’s Vijay Kumar secured victory from this constituency.

Demographically, Gaya Lok Sabha Constituency covers most parts of the Gaya district. It receives financial assistance under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme and has a significant Scheduled Caste population, with 13,34,351 members in the district. Moreover, the district is situated within the Red Corridor.

13. Siwan Lok Sabha Constituency

Siwan Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 18, comprises a total of 15,63,860 electors, with 7,22,125 females and 8,41,735 males. It is not reserved for any particular category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Siwan, Ziradei, Darauli (SC), Raghunathpur, Daraunda, and Barharia.

Historically, Siwan was a stronghold of the RJD, with convicted criminal Mohammed Shahabuddin serving as its MP from 1996 to 2009. In 2009, an Independent candidate, Om Prakash Yadav, secured victory. Subsequently, in 2014, he contested the election on a BJP ticket and emerged victorious. However, in 2019, Kavita Singh from JD(U) won the seat.

Demographically, Siwan Lok Sabha Constituency covers significant portions of the Siwan district, with a total population of 33,30,464. The district has a sizable Muslim population, comprising 6.08 lakh people, along with 3,86,685 Scheduled Castes members. It is also recognized as an economically backward district and receives support under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

14. JahanabadLok Sabha Constituency

Jahanabad Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 36, comprises a total of 14,23,246 electors, including 6,71,661 females and 7,51,585 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency consist of Arwal, Kurtha, Jahanabad, Ghosi, Makhdumpur (SC), and Atri.

Traditionally recognized as a Communist stronghold, Jahanabad has witnessed victories by various parties in the last four elections, including RJD, JD(U), and Rashtriya Lok Samta Party. In 1999, JD(U)’s Arun Kumar emerged victorious but was defeated by RJD’s Ganesh Prasad Singh in 2004. In 2009, JD(U)’s Jagdish Sharma secured the seat, followed by RLSP’s Arun Kumar in 2014. In 2019, Chandeshwar Prasad from JD(U) won the seat.

Demographically, Jahanabad Lok Sabha Constituency covers the entire Arwal and Jahanabad districts and a portion of the Gaya district. It is an area affected by Naxal activities. Jahanabad district has a population of 11,25,313 people, with 2,22,974 belonging to Scheduled Castes. It receives financial assistance under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. Arwal district, with a population of 7,00,843 people, has a literacy rate of 55.12 percent.

15. Jhanjharpur Lok Sabha Constituency

Jhanjharpur Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 7, consists of a total of 16,50,753 electors, with 7,65,869 females and 8,84,884 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The constituency underwent delimitation in 2008, with parts of the Madhepura Assembly segment merging with the Jhanjharpur Assembly seat. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Khajauli, Babubarhi, Rajnagar (SC), Jhanjharpur, Phulparas, and Laukaha.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, the representation of the constituency varied. JD(U)’s Devendra Prasad Yadav served as the MP in 1999 and 2004, although in the latter polls, he contested as an RJD candidate. In 2009, Mangani Lal Mandal from the JD(U) secured victory. Subsequently, in 2014, BJP’s Birendra Kumar Chaudhary held the seat. However, in 2019, Ramprit Mandal from JD(U) emerged victorious.

Demographically, Jhanjharpur Lok Sabha Constituency covers parts of the Madhubani district and receives funding from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. The constituency has a population of 44,87,379.

16. Munger Lok Sabha Constituency

Munger Lok Sabha Constituency, assigned as constituency number 28, encompasses a total of 16,96,546 electors, among which 7,75,110 are females and 9,21,436 are males. It is not reserved for any particular category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Munger, Jamalpur, Suryagarha, Lakhisarai, Mokama, and Barh.

In the recent four Lok Sabha elections, the representation of Munger saw shifts in political leadership. JD(U) leader Brahma Nand Mandal secured victory in 1999. Subsequently, RJD’s Jay Prakash Narayan Yadav held the seat from 2004 to 2009. JD(U) reclaimed power in 2009 with Lalan Singh becoming the MP. However, he lost the seat to LJP’s Veena Devi in 2014. In 2019, Lalan Singh once again emerged victorious.

Demographically, Munger Lok Sabha Constituency covers the entirety of the Lakhisarai district and parts of Munger and Patna districts. Lakhisarai district has a population of 10,00,912, with Hindus constituting 95.5 percent of the populace.

17. Bhagalpur Lok Sabha Constituency

Bhagalpur Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 26, comprises a total of 16,85,339 electors, with 7,90,154 females and 8,95,185 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Bihpur, Gopalpur, Pirpainti (SC), Kahalgaon, Bhagalpur, and Nathnagar.

In the recent four Lok Sabha elections, Bhagalpur witnessed varied political representation. CPM’s Subodh Ray emerged victorious in 1999 but was defeated by Sushil Kumar Modi of the BJP in 2004. BJP’s Syed Shahnawaz Hussain secured victory in the 2006 bypoll and retained the seat until 2014 when he lost to RJD’s Shailesh Kumar Urph Bulo Mandal. In 2019, Ajay Kumar Mandal from JD(U) emerged as the victor.

Demographically, Bhagalpur Lok Sabha Constituency covers a significant part of the Bhagalpur district, which is one of Bihar’s prominent urban centers with a population of 30,37,766 individuals. Additionally, it boasts a considerable Muslim population of 5.37 lakh people. The constituency also benefits from funding under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

18. Karakat Lok Sabha Constituency

Karakat Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 35, comprises a total of 15,69,989 electors, with 7,24,282 females and 8,45,707 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Nokha, Dehri, Karakat, Goh, Obra, and Nabinagar.

In the recent four Lok Sabha elections, the representation of Karakat witnessed changes in political leadership. JD(U)’s Mahabali Singh assumed office as the MP in 2009. Subsequently, RSLP’s Upendra Kushwaha held the position as the sitting MP in 2014. In 2019, Mahabali Singh from JD(U) reclaimed the seat.

Demographically, Karakat Lok Sabha Constituency covers parts of Rohtas and Aurangabad districts. Caste dynamics play a crucial role in this constituency, which is predominantly dominated by Yadav, Rajput, and Kushwaha castes, each contributing at least 2 lakh voters. They are followed by 1.6 lakh Brahmin and Bhumihar voters. Additionally, Mahadalits and Economically Backward Castes are also present in significant numbers.

19. Khagaria Lok Sabha Constituency

Khagaria Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 25, encompasses a total of 14,92,068 electors, comprising 6,98,900 females and 7,93,168 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Simri Bakhtiarpur, Hasanpur, Alauli (SC), Khagaria, Beldaur, and Parbatta.

In the recent four Lok Sabha elections, Khagaria witnessed shifts in political representation. JD(U) leader Renu Kumari secured victory in 1999. However, in the subsequent Lok Sabha election in 2004, she was defeated by RJD’s Rabindra Kumar Rana. Rana, in turn, lost to Dinesh Chandra Yadav of the JD(U) in 2009. LJSP’s Mahboob Ali Choudhary emerged victorious in 2014, while Choudhary Mehboob Ali Kaiser from LJP won in 2019.

Demographically, Khagaria Lok Sabha Constituency covers parts of Saharsa, Samastipur, and substantial portions of Khagaria districts. Being a flood-prone area, Khagaria district has a population of 1,666,886. The region also boasts a significant population of Kushwaha and Extremely Backward Classes (EBC).

20. Katihar Lok Sabha Constituency

Katihar Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 11, boasts a total of 14,46,478 electors, including 6,77,434 females and 7,69,044 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Katihar, Kadwa, Balrampur, Pranpur, Manihari (ST), and Barari.

Historically, the constituency has been a stronghold for the BJP until 2014. However, in 2014, he was defeated by NCP’s Tariq Anwar. In 2019, Dulal Chandra Goswami from JD(U) emerged victorious from this seat. 

Demographically, Katihar Lok Sabha Constituency covers most parts of the Katihar district. With a population of 30,71,029 individuals, of which 12,80,190 are literate as per the Census of 2011, it is identified as a backward district and receives financial assistance from the Centre under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

21. Kishanganj Lok Sabha Constituency

Kishanganj Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 10, comprises a total of 14,38,990 electors, with 6,76,113 females and 7,62,877 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Bahadurganj, Thakurganj, Kishanganj, Kochadhaman, Amour, and Baisi.

In the recent four Lok Sabha elections, the constituency witnessed shifts in political representation. BJP’s Shahnawaz Hussain secured victory in 1999, defeating RJD’s Taslimuddin. However, the latter reclaimed the seat in 2004. In 2014, Congress leader Mohammed Asarul Haque served as the MP. However, in 2019, Dr. Mohammad Jawed won on a Congress ticket. 

Demographically, Kishanganj Lok Sabha Constituency covers the entire district of Kishanganj and parts of Purnia district. The constituency benefits from funds allocated under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. With a population of 16,90,400, Kishanganj district is predominantly Muslim, with over 11.49 lakh Muslim residents.

22. Madhepura Lok Sabha Constituency

Madhepura Lok Sabha Constituency, recognized as constituency number 13, consists of a total of 17,25,578 electors, including 8,26,307 females and 8,99,271 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Alamnagar, Bihariganj, Madhepura, Sonbarsha (SC), Saharsa, and Mahishi.

In the recent four Lok Sabha elections, the constituency has witnessed fluctuations in political representation. JD(U) leader Sharad Yadav emerged victorious in 1999. In 2004, the seat was won by RJD’s Lalu Prasad Yadav, who later vacated it after winning the Chapra seat as well. In the subsequent bypoll, RJD’s Pappu Yadav emerged victorious. However, Sharad Yadav reclaimed the seat in 2009 before losing it to Pappu Yadav in 2014. Subsequently, Dinesh Chandra Yadav of JD(U) won in 2019. 

Demographically, Madhepura Lok Sabha Constituency covers a significant part of Madhepura and Saharsa districts. Yadavs, Brahmins, and upper castes wield influence in Madhepura in eastern Bihar. Yadavs particularly play a crucial role in determining the electoral outcomes in this constituency. 

23. Madhubani Lok Sabha Constituency

Madhubani Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 6, comprises a total of 16,27,969 electors, with 7,50,685 females and 8,77,284 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Harlakhi, Benipatti, Bisfi, Madhubani, Keoti, and Jale.

In the past four Lok Sabha elections, BJP’s Hukm Deo Narayan Yadav has held the MP position thrice since 1999. However, in 2004, he was defeated by Congress’ Shakeel Ahmed. In 2019, BJP’s Ashok Kumar Yadav clinched victory. 

Demographically, Madhubani Lok Sabha Constituency encompasses parts of Madhubani and Darbhanga districts. The district boasts a Hindu population of 13.52 lakhs, along with a significant Muslim population of 17.5 lakhs. Besides agriculture, the district's economy relies on the export of products featuring the renowned Madhubani motif.

24. Maharajganj Lok Sabha Constituency

Maharajganj Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 19, has a total of 16,44,524 electors, including 7,62,260 females and 8,82,264 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Goriyakothi, Maharajganj, Ekma, Manjhi, Baniapur, and Taraiya.

In the past four Lok Sabha elections, JD(U)’s Prabhunath Singh held the MP position until 2009, when he lost the poll to RJD leader Umashankar Singh. Following the demise of Umashankar Singh in January 2013, a bypoll was conducted which RJD’s Prabhu Nath Singh won. However, he lost to BJP’s Janardan Singh in 2014. In 2019, Janardan Singh Sigriwal of the BJP emerged victorious.

Demographically, Maharajganj Lok Sabha Constituency encompasses parts of Saran and Siwan districts. Saran district receives aid under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme currently. It has a population of 39,51,862 people, with 4,74,066 belonging to Scheduled Castes.

25. Muzaffarpur Lok Sabha Constituency

Muzaffarpur Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 15, has a total of 15,51,363 electors. Jai Narain Prasad Nishad, a five-time Lok Sabha MP, secured the seat twice in 1999 and 2009 on a JD(U) ticket. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Gaighat, Aurai, Bochahan (SC), Sakra (SC), Kurhani, and Muzaffarpur.

In recent elections, Jai Narain Prasad Nishad emerged victorious twice, while JD(U) leader George Fernandes won the 2004 election. In 2014, Ajay Nishad of JD(U) secured the seat and continued on his path to victory in 2019 as well. 

Demographically, Muzaffarpur has historical significance in Indian politics, especially when late socialist leader George Fernandes won here after the Emergency. Bhumihars, Yadavs, Muslims, and Sahnis constitute a significant portion of the electorate. Bhumihars and Sahnis influence voting in their areas, while Kayasthas wield influence in Muzaffarpur town. Vaishyas also form a considerable part of the electorate.

26. Nalanda Lok Sabha Constituency

Nalanda Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 29, has a total of 19,51,967 electors, with 9,15,392 females and 10,36,575 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Asthawan, Biharsharif, Rajgir (SC), Islampur, Hilsa, Nalanda, and Harnaut.

JD(U) has maintained a stronghold in this constituency since 1999, with leaders like George Fernandes and Nitish Kumar representing the seat. Ramswaroop Prasad won a bypoll in 2006, and Kaushalendra Kumar has been representing the constituency since 2009.

Demographically, Nalanda Lok Sabha Constituency covers the entire Nalanda district, with a population of 28,76,653, of which 26.69 lakh are Hindus. It has a significant Muslim population of 1.98 lakh, as per Census 2011. About 52.81% of its population is literate. It is a Naxal-hit area and receives benefits under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

27. Nawada Lok Sabha Constituency

Nawada Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 39, has a total of 16,75,789 electors, including 7,88,739 females and 8,87,050 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Barbigha, Rajauli (SC), Hisua, Nawada, Gobindpur, and Warsaliganj.

In the last four Lok Sabha elections, BJP has secured victory in three elections, including the 2014 polls, where BJP leader Giriraj Singh defeated RJD’s Raj Ballab Prasad by more than 14,000 votes. RJD's sole victory in this constituency was in 2004. In 2019 Chandan Singh from LJP emerged victorious. 

Demographically, Nawada Lok Sabha Constituency covers parts of Sheikhpura district and the entire Nawada district, known for sugarcane farming. Nawada district has a population of 22,19,146, of which 88.5 percent are Hindus. It also benefits from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

28. Paschim Champaran Lok Sabha Constituency 

Paschim Champaran Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 2, has a total of 14,13,073 electors, including 6,43,721 females and 7,69,352 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Nautan, Chanpatia, Bettiah, Raxaul, Sugali, and Narkatia.

BJP’s Sanjay Jaiswal has been representing the seat since 2009.

Demographically, Paschim Champaran Lok Sabha Constituency covers parts of Paschim Champaran and Purvi Champaran. It is part of the Red Corridor and receives funds from the Centre under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. As per 2014 estimates, the constituency is the smallest electorate with 13,66,080 voters.

29. Pataliputra Lok Sabha Constituency

Pataliputra Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 31, comprises a total of 17,36,074 electors, including 8,01,988 females and 9,34,086 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. This constituency was delimited, carved out of the old Patna constituency in 2008. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Danapur, Maner, Phulwari (SC), Masaurhi (SC), Paliganj, and Bikram.

JD(U)’s Ranjan Prasad Yadav defeated RJD chief Lalu Yadav in 2009. However, in the 2014 election, Lalu’s daughter Misa contested but lost to BJP’s Ram Kripal Yadav. Yadav continued to hold the seat even in 2019. 

Demographically, Pataliputra covers parts of Patna district, with Yadavs comprising a significant portion of the voters, considered to be an RJD-favorite. It is also part of the Red Corridor and receives support under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) is keen on contesting from this constituency in upcoming polls.

30. Patna Sahib Lok Sabha Constituency

Patna Sahib Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 30, has a total of 19,46,249 electors, including 8,93,971 females and 10,52,278 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. This constituency was delimited from the erstwhile Patna Lok Sabha constituency in 2008. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Bakhtiarpur, Digha, Bankipur, Kumhrar, Patna Sahib, and Fatuha.

BJP’s Shatrughan Sinha was the sitting MP since 2009. However, BJP’s Ravi Shankar Prasad defeated Sinha in 2019. 

Demographically, Patna Sahib covers parts of Patna district, which has a population of 58,38,465 people. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) is fielding Union minister Ravi Shankar Prasad. Patna Sahib seat is considered one of the safest seats for BJP in India, especially after the last delimitation of seats in 2008 which made it an urban seat. Due to its large Kayastha population, it is the most sought after by saffron party leaders.

31. Purvi Champaran Lok Sabha Constituency

Purvi Champaran Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 3, comprises a total of 14,52,963 electors, including 6,64,402 females and 7,88,561 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Harsidhi (SC), Govindganj, Kesaria, Kalyanpur, Pipra, and Motihari.

BJP leader Radha Mohan Singh has been representing the seat since 2009.

Demographically, Purvi Champaran covers parts of Purvi Champaran district. The district has a population of 50,99,371 people, with 9.9 lakh Muslims. It comes under the Red Corridor and is an economically backward district receiving funds under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

32. Purnia Lok Sabha Constituency

Purnia Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 12, comprises a total of 15,82,967 electors, including 7,49,357 females and 8,33,610 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Kasba, Banmankhi (SC), Rupauli, Dhamdaha, Purnia, and Korha (SC).

Rajesh Ranjan won the seat in 1999 as an Independent candidate. BJP’s Uday Singh held the seat for the next two terms. In 2014, JD(U)’s Santosh Kumar defeated Singh by more than 1.16 lakh votes, and in 2019 JD(U)’s Santosh Kumar emerged victorious.

Demographically, Purnia covers large parts of Purnia district and a small part of Katihar district. Muslims form a significant vote bank in this constituency. Part of the Seemanchal region, the eponymous district also receives aid from the Centre under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

33. Samastipur Lok Sabha Constituency

Samastipur Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 23, comprises a total of 15,03,005 electors, including 6,96,404 females and 8,05,601 males. It is reserved for Scheduled Castes. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Kusheshwar Asthan (SC), Hayaghat, Kalyanpur (SC), Warisnagar, Samastipur, and Rosera (SC).

Before delimitation, JD(U)’s Manjay Lal and RJD’s Alok Kumar Mehta won the seat in 1999 and 2004, respectively. It 2009, JD(U) leader Maheshwar Hazari represented the seat and was succeeded by LJP’s Ram Chandra Paswan in 2014 as well as in 2019.

Demographically, Samastipur covers part of Darbhanga, Purvi Champaran, and Samastipur districts. Samastipur district has a population of 42,61,566 people, comprising 38 lakh Hindus.

34. Saran Lok Sabha Constituency

Saran Lok Sabha Constituency, marked as constituency number 20, comprises a total of 15,39,744 electors, including 7,05,383 females and 8,33,361 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Marhaura, Chapra, Garkha (SC), Amnour, Parsa, and Sonepur.

One of the most politically significant constituencies in the country, RJD chief Lalu Prasad was elected from the erstwhile Chapra constituency prior to delimitation. He held the seat in 2009 as well. His wife Rabri Devi contested the 2014 polls but lost to BJP’s Rajib Pratap Rudy who again won in 2019.

Demographically, Saran covers large parts of Saran district. The district has an SC population of 4,74,066 people. It also receives aid under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

35. Sasaram Lok Sabha Constituency

Sasaram Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 34, comprises a total of 16,07,474 electors, including 7,48,350 females and 8,59,397 males. It is reserved for Scheduled Castes. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Mohania (SC), Bhabua, Chainpur, Chenari (SC), Sasaram, and Kargahar.

BJP leader Muni Lall won the election in 1999 defeating RJD’s Ram Keshi Bharti. Congress leader Meira Kumar represented the constituency in the next two terms but she lost to Chhedi Paswan of the BJP in the 2014 polls who again won the seat in 2019.

Demographically, Sasaram covers large parts of Kaimur and some parts of Rohtas districts. Situated along the Uttar Pradesh border, the region is part of the Red Corridor and receives funding under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme.

36. Sheohar Lok Sabha Constituency

Sheohar Lok Sabha Constituency, identified as constituency number 4, comprises a total of 14,89,724 electors, including 6,95,045 females and 7,94,679 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Madhuban, Chiraia, Dhaka, Sheohar, Riga, and Belsand.

Mohammed Anwarul Haque won the seat in 1999 on the RJD ticket but lost when he contested on a BJP ticket in 2004 to RJD’s Sitaram Singh. Since 2009, BJP’s Rama Devi has been the MP.

Demographically, Sheohar covers the entire Sheohar district and parts of Purvi Champaran and Sitamarhi districts. Dominated by Rajputs, the region is a Naxal-hit area and receives aid from the Centre under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. Sheohar district has a population of 6,56,246 people of which 5.52 lakh are Hindus.

 37. Sitamarhi Lok Sabha Constituency

Sitamarhi Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 5, has a total of 15,74,914 electors, including 7,42,544 females and 8,32,370 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Bathnaha (SC), Parihar, Sursand, Bajpatti, Sitamarhi, and Runnisaidpur.

JD(U)’s Nawal Kishore Rai won the seat in 1999 but lost it to RJD’s Sitaram Yadav in 2004. JD(U) candidate Arjun Roy won the seat in 2009, while in 2014, RLSP candidate Ram Kumar Sharma clinched the seat. In 2019, Sunil Kumar Pintu from JD(U) emerged victorious.

Demographically, located along the Nepal border, Sitamarhi covers large parts of Sitamarhi district. With a population of 34,23,574, Sitamarhi district has a sizable number of Muslims residing there (7.4 lakh). Due to the Maoist presence in the area, it is also an economically backward region, receiving funds under the Backward Regions Grant Fund.

38. Supaul Lok Sabha Constituency

Supaul Lok Sabha Constituency, marked as constituency number 8, comprises a total of 15,25,592 electors, including 7,28,613 females and 7,96,979 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Nirmali, Pipra, Supaul, Triveniganj (SC), Chhatapur, and Singheshwar (SC).

JD(U)’s Vishwa Mohan Kumar won the seat in 2009. He was succeeded by Congress leader Ranjeet Rajan who defeated JD(U)’s Dileshwar Kamait. However, Kamait again won in 2019. 

Demographically, Supaul covers the entire Supaul district and a part of Madhepura district. Supaul district has a population of 22,29,076 people. It is an economically backward area and receives funds under the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. It has a literacy rate of 46.35 percent.

39. Ujiarpur Lok Sabha Constituency

Ujiarpur Lok Sabha Constituency, designated as constituency number 22, comprises a total of 14,28,445 electors, including 6,60,322 females and 7,68,123 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Patepur (SC), Ujiarpur, Morwa, Sarairanjan, Mohiuddinnagar, and Bibhitipur.

JD(U) leader Ashwamedh Devi defeated RJD’s Alok Kumar Mehta in 2009. In 2014, BJP leader Nityanand Rai won the election, triumphing over Mehta. Rai again won the seat in 2019. 

Demographically, Ujiarpur covers a part of Patpeur and parts of Samastipur. It is dominated by people from extremely backward castes and OBCs. As per 2014 estimates, there are around 2 lakh Koeri voters in the region followed by around 1.8 lakh Yadav voters. There are a sizable number of Brahmins and Bhumihars too.

40. Valmiki Nagar Lok Sabha Constituency

Valmiki Nagar Lok Sabha Constituency, with constituency number 1, comprises a total of 14,56,576 electors, including 6,70,279 females and 7,86,297 males. It is not reserved for any specific category. The assembly constituencies within this Lok Sabha constituency include Valmiki Nagar, Ramnagar (SC), Narkatiaganj, Bagaha, Lauriya, and Sikta.

JD(U)’s Baidyanath Prasad Mahto represented the seat in 2009. In 2014, BJP’s Satish Chandra Dubey defeated rival Congress leader Purnmasi Ram. In 2019, Baidyanath Prasad Mahto from JD(U) won.

Demographically, Valmiki Nagar covers large parts of Paschim Champaran district. Though a Hindu-majority district, it has more than 8.65 lakh Muslims. It is located along the India-Nepal border.

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