Washington : Even light and moderate drinking – up to one drink a day for women and two drinks daily for men – is associated with an increased risk of alcohol related cancers in women and male smokers, a new study has found.
The study found that among women, light to moderate drinking was associated with an increased risk of alcohol related cancer, mainly breast cancer, even in women who had never smoked. Overall, light to moderate drinking was associated with minimally increased risk of total cancer in both men and women.
Risk of alcohol related cancers was also higher among light and moderate drinking men, but only in those who had ever smoked. No association was found in men who had never smoked. Heavy alcohol consumption has been linked to increased risk of several cancers. However, the association between light to moderate drinking and overall cancer risk is less clear.
A team of US researchers based at Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, set out to determine whether light to moderate drinking is associated with an increased risk of cancer. They used data from two large US studies that tracked the health of 88,084 women and 47,881 men for up to 30 years.
They assessed risk of total cancer and known alcohol related cancers including cancer of the colorectum, female breast, liver, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. Light to moderate drinking was defined as up to one standard drink or 15g alcohol per day for women and up to two standard drinks or 30g alcohol per day for men.
Factors such as age, ethnicity, body mass index, family history of cancer, history of cancer screening, smoking, physical activity and diet were also taken into account. During the follow-up period, a total of 19,269 and 7,571 cancers were diagnosed in women and men, respectively.