Sambhaji who was born on 14 May 1657, was the second Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire who ruled from 1681 to 1689. He was the eldest son of Chhatrapati Shivaji the founder of the Marathas.
Chhatrapati Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between the Maratha kingdom and Mughal Empire as well as other neighbouring powers such as the Siddis, Mysore and the Portuguese in Goa.
In 1689, Chhatrapati Sambhaji was captured, tortured and executed by the Mughals. He was succeeded by his brother Rajaram l.
Here are some interesting facts about Sambhaji:
1. Chhatrapati Sambhaji was born at Purandar fort to Saibai, Chhatrapati Shivaji's first wife. His mother died when he was two years old and he was raised by his paternal grandmother Jijabai.
2. Chhatrapati Sambhaji was sent to live with Raja Jai Singh I of Aamer at the age of 9, as a political hostage to ensure the compliance of the Treaty of Purandar that Chhatrapati Shivaji had signed with the Mughals.
As a result of the treaty, Sambhaji became a Mughal Mansabdar.
3. Chhatrapati Sambhaji was married to Jivubai in a marriage, she took the name Yesubai.
6. Chhatrapati Sambhaji had a lot of difficulties getting to the throne after Chhatrapati Shivaji passed away as many conspired against him.
7. Chhatrapati Sambhaji was held captive at Panhala fort when Shivaji died and Sambhaji's stepmother Soyrabai installed a 10-year-old Rajaram on the throne.
8. He later defeated all the political opponents and became the second Chhatrapati of the kingdom.