A record number of elephants, 361, have died in Sri Lanka during 2019, the highest figure since the island nation became independent in 1948, environmental groups say.
There are an estimated 7,500 wild elephants in Sri Lanka. Killing them is illegal, but the animals often come into conflict with rural communities, reports the BBC.
Elephants are revered in Sri Lanka but some farmers view them as pests.
Sajeewa Chamikara, an environmentalist from the Movement for Land and Agricultural Reform, told the BBC that some 85 per cent of elephant deaths last year may have been caused by human activity.
He said communities had used electric fences, poison and explosives concealed as food to kill the animals.
In September, officials said they suspected seven elephants found dead in a reserve were poisoned by local residents for destroying crops.
An earlier BBC report had said that the expansion of villages and farms in Sri Lanka has contributed to dwindling supplies of food and water for the animals.
Officials have promised to work to resolve the conflict by putting fences between elephant habitats and rural communities.