(iv) Exploratory therapy or therapeutic suitability: This is a method to diagnose a disease through many types of treatment systems. When a physician is not able to diagnose a disease on the basis of preliminary signs and specific symptoms, then exploratory therapy’241 is required. For the confirmation of disease, therapeutic pathology tests are performed. This therapy also includes suitable trials with drugs, diet and daily regimen, which may be contrary to the etiology of disease or which produce effects contrary to both the etiology and disease or producing specific effects by acting directly or indirectly against the causative factor (hetu) or the disease (vyadhi). There are two categories on whose basis these treatments are of 18 types.
- I) Viparita: These include trials with medicine, diet and daily regimen which are opposite to the etiology (hetu) and disease (vyadhi), or both of them.
- II) Viparitartttakari: These include trials with medicine, diet and daily regimen that produces the opposite effect, though not entirely opposite to either etiology (hetu) or disease (vyadhi), or both of them.
These two categories are further divided into 18 types.
(1) Cause opposite medicine
(2) Cause opposite diet
(3) Cause opposite daily regimen
(4) Disease opposite medicine
(5) Disease opposite diet
(6) Disease opposite daily regimen
(7) Cause-Disease opposite medicine
(8) Cause-Disease opposite diet
(9) Cause-Disease opposite daily regimen
(10) Cause Viparitarthakari medicine
(11) Cause Viparitarthakari diet
(12) Cause Viparitarthakari daily regimen
(13) Disease Viparitarthakari medicine
(14) Disease Viparitarthakari diet
(15) Disease Viparitartakari daily regimen
(16) Cause-Disease Viparitarthakari medicine
(17) Cause-Disease Viparitarthakari diet
(18) Cause-Disease Viparitarthakari daily regimen
Also Read: Different Methods of Disease Examination
(v) Pathogenesis: The complete sequence of occurrence of disease is called pathogenesis(25). It starts from the accumulation of dosas to aggravation of either one, two or all three dosas, spreads (circulation of dosas in the entire body or at some particular location in the colon, stomach, liver, spleen, uterus, skin and so on), localizes at specific sites (combination of dosas and dhatus (tissue) vitiated by the dosa) and then manifests (emergence of a disease). Thus, it is the process of emergence of disease by the provoked dosas which are circulating all over the body. Pathogenesis is of six types(26). In Ayurveda, pathogenesis or ‘samprapti’ is also denoted by terms like ‘jati’ and ‘agati’. Origin or birth of a disease is ‘jati’ and the velocity of spread of a disease is ‘agati’. Through pathogenesis, we obtain an accurate knowledge for the diagnose of a disease. Diseases are mainly of two types: Endogenous and Exogenous
* Endogenous disease: When immunity of the body gets defeated from the causative factors of a disease, then endogenous diseases occur. If ama (undigested food) blocks the srotas (channels), it results in the provocation of the dosas. This way, in all endogenous diseases a combination of undigested food and provoked dosas (either as the main cause or present due to the effect of each other) are the causative agents of deformity in srotas (channels) and dhatus (tissues), which causes a disease.
* Exogenous disease: Exogenous factors of a disease (such as trauma, mosquito bites, snake and scorpion poisoning and other wild animal attacks), first of all, cause affliction with pain caused by injury or wounds and poisoning, later they get associated with the dosa in them. Afterwards, as a result of ama dosa (a combination of undigested food and dosa) vitiation in dhatus (tissues) and srotas (channels) develops in a combination. In endogenous diseases, firstly a combination and interaction between dosa and dhatu (tissues) occur, followed by manifestation and pathogenesis.
(B) Satkriyakala: The Six Stages of Manifestation of Disease
As a result of seasonal changes, all three dosas (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) keep getting provoked and pacified naturally. For example, Vata dosa accumulates in summer, gets aggravated during the monsoon and gets balanced to come back to its normal condition in autumn. Pitta dosa accumulates in the monsoon, gets provoked in autumn and gets back into equilibrium during winter. Similarly, Kapha dosa accumulates in winter, gets aggravated in spring and is normalized in summer.
At all places and in all countries, seasonal conditions are not the same. Due to this variation in different places, countries and at different times, the time and process of accumulation, aggravation and alleviation (to get back to equilibrium) of dosas also varies. If this disequilibrium of dosas is within limits, then the body is able to tolerate this imbalance with its immunity and is protected from disease. But if the accumulation and provocation of dosas exceeds its limit, then the body’s immunity is unable to fight with the disease and one contracts a disease.
Besides seasonal changes, many other causes such as inappropriate food and lifestyle also vitiate the dosas and provoke disease. For the manifestation of a disease, dosas have to pass through several stages. These phases are called kriyakala (stages) in Ayurveda. They are six in number. If the imbalance of dosa is controlled in an initial phase, then further stages do not appear, and as a result disease does not occur; but if it does, then after diagnosis of a disease in a primary stage, it can be easily controlled and managed by means of treatment and knowledge. This is only possible by means of Ayurveda. Hence, to make the world disease-free, basic knowledge of Ayurveda is essential for every individual. Then the onslaught of many diseases can be controlled before the genesis of disease. These six stages of disease manifestation are (i) accumulation, (ii) aggravation, (iii) dissemination, (iv) localization or site of manifestation, (v) symptom manifestation, and (vi) differentiation or chronicity of a disease.